Location Based Services seek to provide a personalised service to users (people, machines and other information systems) based on where they are located. The starting point is the user's position, generally obtained through a global positioning system (Global Navigation Satellite System or GNSS). From here, the challenge is to determine semantically where the user is, and what resources are nearby (starting with determining what it means to be nearby: distance in a straight line, distance over roads, etc.). An additional challenge is the consideration of communication constraints when offering these services. Aspects such as poor or non-existent communications performance have implications for service design constraints.